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'Ella Maclane is dying to come to Baden-Baden', remarks a character in Henry James's novel Confidence. But there is a hitch: 'Her father and mother think it's improper - what do you call it - immoral.' From the 1840s until the 1870s German water resorts, and Baden-Baden ("Europe's summer capital") in particular, were among the most fashionable - and notorious - of Continental destinations, famed for fostering transient and transgressive modes of therapy, sociability and play. In this study, an original alloy of comparative criticism and cultural history, B.D. Morgan reads across genres and literary traditions to decode the nineteenth century's fascination with the spa - a 'cosmopolitan' space in an era of nationalisms - before exploring the "classic" watering place's curious fictional afterlives.
Interweaving nuanced discussions of politics, visuality, and gender, Gender and Activism in a Little Magazine uncovers the complex ways that gender figures into the graphic satire created by artists for the New York City-based socialist journal, the Masses. This exceptional magazine was published between 1911 and 1917, during an unusually radical decade in American history, and featured cartoons drawn by artists of the Ashcan School and others, addressing questions of politics, gender, labor and class. Rather than viewing art from the Masses primarily in terms of its critical social stances or aesthetic choices, however, this study uses these images to open up new ways of understanding the complexity of early 20th-century viewpoints. By focusing on the activist images found in the Masses and studying their unique perspective on American modernity, Rachel Schreiber also returns these often-ignored images to their rightful place in the scholarship on American modernism. This book demonstrates that the centrality of the Masses artists' commitments to gender and class equality is itself a characterization of the importance of these issues for American moderns. Despite their alarmingly regular reliance on gender stereotypesÃ¢"and regardless of any assessment of the efficacy of the artists' activismÃ¢"the graphic satire of the Masses offers invaluable insights into the workings of gender and the role of images in activist practices at the beginning of the last century.
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